World War 2

 

The Holocaust narrative

 

Victims

 

Anne Frank

 

Anne Frank : Arrest & Miep Gies found "The Diary"

 

 

 

 

annefrank.org : Reconstruction: the arrest of the people in hiding

On 4 August 1944, Anne Frank and the other people in hiding were discovered and arrested. In this reconstruction, you will learn what we know about this day, when what they had feared for so long finally happened.

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annefrank.org : The main characters : Anne Frank

 

Anne Frank

  • Born on: 12 June 1929
    • Daughter to: Otto Frank and Edith Frank-Holländer
    • Sister to: Margot (1926)
  • In hiding: 6 July 1942
  • Arrested: 4 August 1944
  • Died: February 1945

 

 

Wikipedia : Miep Gies

 

Hermine "Miep" Gies ( née Santruschitz; 15 February 1909 – 11 January 2010 ) 

 

was one of the Dutch citizens who hid Anne Frank, her family ( Otto Frank, Margot Frank, Edith Frank-Holländer ) and four other Jews ( Fritz Pfeffer, Hermann van Pels, Auguste van Pels, Peter van Pels ) from the Nazis in an annex above Otto Frank's business premises during World War II.

 

[...]

 

She retrieved Anne Frank's diary after the family was arrested and kept the papers safe until Otto Frank returned from Auschwitz in 1945 and learned of his younger daughter's death.

 


 

 

annefrank.org : The main characters : Miep Gies

 

Miep keeps Anne’s diary notes

But then, on Friday morning 4 August 1944, Dutch police officers, headed by SS-Hauptscharführer Karl Josef Silberbauer, unexpectedly raided Prinsengracht 263.

 

They arrested the eight people in hiding, as well as their helpers Johannes Kleiman and Victor Kugler.

When Miep and Bep later went to the Secret Annex to see if they could save some personal belongings of the people in hiding, they found Anne's notebooks and papers on the floor.

 

Miep and Bep gathered everything up and Miep decided to keep the papers in a desk drawer, hoping one day to be able to return them to Anne.

 

 

 

Wikipedia : Anne Frank

 

Annelies Marie "Anne" Frank ( 12 June 1929 – February or March 1945)[3]

 

was a German-born Dutch-Jewish diarist.

 

One of the most discussed Jewish victims of the Holocaust, she gained fame posthumously with the publication of The Diary of a Young Girl

 

( originally Het Achterhuis in Dutch; English: The Secret Annex),

 

in which she documents her life in hiding from 1942 to 1944, during the German occupation of the Netherlands in World War II.

 

It is one of the world's best known books and has been the basis for several plays and films.

[...]

 

Anne Frank
Anne Frank in 1940
Anne Frank in 1940
Born Annelies[1] or Anneliese[2] Marie Frank
12 June 1929
Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany
Died February or March 1945 (aged 15)
Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, Eastern Hanover, Germany
Resting place Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, Lower Saxony, Germany
Occupation Diarist
Language Dutch
Citizenship
Relatives

 

 

Arrest
 

On the morning of 4 August 1944, the Achterhuis was stormed by a group of German uniformed police (Grüne Polizei) led by SS-Oberscharführer Karl Silberbauer of the Sicherheitsdienst.[37]

 

The Franks, van Pelses, and Pfeffer were taken to RSHA headquarters, where they were interrogated and held overnight.

 

On 5 August they were transferred to the Huis van Bewaring (House of Detention), an overcrowded prison on the Weteringschans.

 

Two days later they were transported to the Westerbork transit camp, through which by that time more than 100,000 Jews, mostly Dutch and German, had passed.

 

Having been arrested in hiding, they were considered criminals and sent to the Punishment Barracks for hard labour.[38]

 

 

Victor Kugler and Johannes Kleiman were arrested and jailed at the penal camp for enemies of the regime at Amersfoort.

 

Kleiman was released after seven weeks, but Kugler was held in various work camps until the war's end.[39]

 

Miep Gies and Bep Voskuijl were questioned and threatened by the Security Police but not detained.

 

They returned to the Achterhuis the following day, and found Anne's papers strewn on the floor.

 

They collected them, as well as several family photograph albums, and Gies resolved to return them to Anne after the war.

 

On 7 August 1944, Gies attempted to facilitate the release of the prisoners by confronting Silberbauer and offering him money to intervene, but he refused.[40]

 

Although there have been persistent claims of betrayal by an informant, the source of the information that led the authorities to raid the Achterhuis has never been identified.

 

Night watchman Martin Sleegers and an unidentified police officer investigated a burglary at the premises in April 1944 and came across the bookcase concealing the secret door.

 

Tonny Ahlers, a member of the National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands (NSB), was suspected of being the informant by Carol Ann Lee, biographer of Otto Frank.

 

Another suspect is stockroom manager Willem van Maaren.

 

The Annex occupants did not trust him, as he seemed inquisitive regarding people entering the stockroom after hours.

 

He once unexpectedly asked the employees whether there had previously been a Mr. Frank at the office.

 

Lena Hartog was suspected of being the informant by Anne Frank's biographer Melissa Müller.

 

Several of these suspects knew one another and might have worked in collaboration.

 

While virtually everyone connected with the betrayal was interrogated after the war, no one was definitively identified as being the informant.[41]

 

In 2015, Flemish journalist Jeroen de Bruyn and Joop van Wijk, Bep Voskuijl's youngest son, wrote a biography, Bep Voskuijl, het zwijgen voorbij: een biografie van de jongste helper van het Achterhuis (Bep Voskuijl, the Silence is Over: A Biography of the Youngest Helper of the Secret Annex), in which they alleged that Bep's younger sister Nelly (1923–2001) could have betrayed the Frank family.

 

According to the book, Bep's sister Diny and her fiancé Bertus Hulsman recollected Nelly telephoning the Gestapo on the morning of 4 August 1944.[42][43]

 

Nelly had been critical of Bep and their father, Johannes Voskuijl, helping the Jews. (Johannes was the one who constructed the bookcase covering the entrance to the hiding place.)[44]

 

Nelly was a Nazi collaborator between the ages of 19 and 23.[45]

 

Karl Silberbauer, the SS officer who received the phone call and made the arrest, was documented to say that the informer had "the voice of a young woman".[43]

 

In 2016, the Anne Frank House published new research pointing to investigation over ration card fraud, rather than betrayal, as a plausible explanation for the raid that led to the arrest of the Franks.[46]

 

The report states that other activities in the building may have led authorities there, including activities of Frank's company. However, it does not rule out betrayal.[47]

 

 

 

Wikipedia : Karl Silberbauer

 

Karl Josef Silberbauer ( 21 June 1911 – 2 September 1972 ) 

 

was an Austrian police officer, SS member and undercover investigator for the West German Federal Intelligence Service.

 

He was stationed in Nazi-occupied Amsterdam during World War II, where he was promoted to the rank of Hauptscharführer (master sergeant).[1][2]

 

In 1963, Silberbauer, by then an Inspector in the Vienna police, was exposed as the commander of the 1944 Gestapo raid on the Secret Annex and the arrests of Anne Frank, her fellow fugitives, and their protectors.[3]

 

[...]

 

The raid on the Frank Secret Annex

 

On 4 August 1944, Silberbauer was ordered by his superior, SS-Obersturmführer (lieutenant) Julius Dettmann, to investigate a tip-off that Jews were being hidden in the upstairs rooms at Prinsengracht 263.

 

He took a few Dutch policemen with him and interrogated Victor Kugler about the entrance to the hiding place.

 

Miep Gies and Johannes Kleiman were also questioned, and while Kugler and Kleimann were arrested, Gies was allowed to stay on the premises.

 

She later surmised this was because she recognized and connected with Silberbauer's Viennese accent.

 

Both Otto Frank and Karl Silberbauer were interviewed after the war about the circumstances of the raid, with both describing Silberbauer's surprise that those in hiding had been there for more than two years.

 

Frank recalled Silberbauer confiscating their valuables and money, taking these spoils away in Otto Frank's briefcase, which he had emptied onto the floor scattering out the papers and notebooks which made up the diary of Anne Frank.

 

Soon after, Kugler and Johannes Kleiman, together with Otto Frank, Edith Frank-Holländer, Margot Frank, Anne Frank, Hermann van Pels, Auguste van Pels, Peter van Pels, and Fritz Pfeffer, were arrested and taken to Gestapo headquarters in Amsterdam.

 

From there, the eight who had been in hiding were sent to the Westerbork transit camp and then to Auschwitz concentration camp.

 

Soon after, Margot Frank and Anne Frank were sent to Bergen-Belsen, where they died from typhus.

 

Victor Kugler and Jo Kleiman were sent to work camps.

 

Of the ten, only Otto Frank, Kugler, and Kleiman survived.